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Tutorials

This section consists of tutorials in the context of the Kubernetes plugin for Spin

1 - Autoscaler Support

A tutorial to show how autoscaler support can be enabled via the spin kube command

Horizontal autoscaling support

In Kubernetes, a horizontal autoscaler automatically updates a workload resource (such as a Deployment or StatefulSet) with the aim of automatically scaling the workload to match demand.

Horizontal scaling means that the response to increased load is to deploy more resources. This is different from vertical scaling, which for Kubernetes would mean assigning more memory or CPU to the resources that are already running for the workload.

If the load decreases, and the number of resources is above the configured minimum, a horizontal autoscaler would instruct the workload resource (the Deployment, StatefulSet, or other similar resource) to scale back down.

The Kubernetes plugin for Spin includes autoscaler support, which allows you to tell Kubernetes when to scale your Spin application up or down based on demand. This tutorial will show you how to enable autoscaler support via the spin kube scaffold command.

Prerequisites

Regardless of what type of autoscaling is used, you must determine how you want your application to scale by answering the following questions:

  1. Do you want your application to scale based upon system metrics (CPU and memory utilization) or based upon events (like messages in a queue or rows in a database)?
  2. If you application scales based on system metrics, how much CPU and memory each instance does your application need to operate?

Choosing an autoscaler

The Kubernetes plugin for Spin supports two types of autoscalers: Horizontal Pod Autoscaler (HPA) and Kubernetes Event-driven Autoscaling (KEDA). The choice of autoscaler depends on the requirements of your application.

Horizontal Pod Autoscaling (HPA)

Horizontal Pod Autoscaler (HPA) scales Kubernetes pods based on CPU or memory utilization. This HPA scaling can be implemented via the Kubernetes plugin for Spin by setting the --autoscaler hpa option. This page deals exclusively with autoscaling via the Kubernetes plugin for Spin.

spin kube scaffold --from user-name/app-name:latest --autoscaler hpa --cpu-limit 100m --memory-limit 128Mi

Horizontal Pod Autoscaling is built-in to Kubernetes and does not require the installation of a third-party runtime. For more general information about scaling with HPA, please see the Spin Operator’s Scaling with HPA section

Kubernetes Event-driven Autoscaling (KEDA)

Kubernetes Event-driven Autoscaling (KEDA) is an extension of Horizontal Pod Autoscaling (HPA). On top of allowing to scale based on CPU or memory utilization, KEDA allows for scaling based on events from various sources like messages in a queue, or the number of rows in a database.

KEDA can be enabled by setting the --autoscaler keda option:

spin kube scaffold --from user-name/app-name:latest --autoscaler keda --cpu-limit 100m --memory-limit 128Mi -replicas 1 --max-replicas 10

Using KEDA to autoscale your Spin applications requires the installation of the KEDA runtime into your Kubernetes cluster. For more information about scaling with KEDA in general, please see the Spin Operator’s Scaling with KEDA section

Setting min/max replicas

The --replicas and --max-replicas options can be used to set the minimum and maximum number of replicas for your application. The --replicas option defaults to 2 and the --max-replicas option defaults to 3.

spin kube scaffold --from user-name/app-name:latest --autoscaler hpa --cpu-limit 100m --memory-limit 128Mi -replicas 1 --max-replicas 10

Setting CPU/memory limits and CPU/memory requests

If the node where an application is running has enough of a resource available, it’s possible (and allowed) for that application to use more resource than its resource request for that resource specifies. However, an application is not allowed to use more than its resource limit.

For example, if you set a memory request of 256 MiB, and that application is scheduled to a node with 8GiB of memory and no other appplications, then the application can try to use more RAM.

If you set a memory limit of 4GiB for that application, the webassembly runtime will enforce that limit. The runtime prevents the application from using more than the configured resource limit. For example: when a process in the application tries to consume more than the allowed amount of memory, the webassembly runtime terminates the process that attempted the allocation with an out of memory (OOM) error.

The --cpu-limit, --memory-limit, --cpu-request, and --memory-request options can be used to set the CPU and memory limits and requests for your application. The --cpu-limit and --memory-limit options are required, while the --cpu-request and --memory-request options are optional.

It is important to note the following:

  • CPU/memory requests are optional and will default to the CPU/memory limit if not set.
  • CPU/memory requests must be lower than their respective CPU/memory limit.
  • If you specify a limit for a resource, but do not specify any request, and no admission-time mechanism has applied a default request for that resource, then Kubernetes copies the limit you specified and uses it as the requested value for the resource.
spin kube scaffold --from user-name/app-name:latest --autoscaler hpa --cpu-limit 100m --memory-limit 128Mi --cpu-request 50m --memory-request 64Mi

Setting target utilization

Target utilization is the percentage of the resource that you want to be used before the autoscaler kicks in. The autoscaler will check the current resource utilization of your application against the target utilization and scale your application up or down based on the result.

Target utilization is based on the average resource utilization across all instances of your application. For example, if you have 3 instances of your application, the target CPU utilization is 50%, and each application is averaging 80% CPU utilization, the autoscaler will continue to increase the number of instances until all instances are averaging 50% CPU utilization.

To scale based on CPU utilization, use the --autoscaler-target-cpu-utilization option:

spin kube scaffold --from user-name/app-name:latest --autoscaler hpa --cpu-limit 100m --memory-limit 128Mi --autoscaler-target-cpu-utilization 50

To scale based on memory utilization, use the --autoscaler-target-memory-utilization option:

spin kube scaffold --from user-name/app-name:latest --autoscaler hpa --cpu-limit 100m --memory-limit 128Mi --autoscaler-target-memory-utilization 50