Deploy Spin Operator on Azure Kubernetes Service

In this tutorial you’ll learn how to deploy Spin Operator on Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)

In this tutorial, you install Spin Operator on an Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) cluster and deploy a simple Spin application. You will learn how to:

  • Deploy an AKS cluster
  • Install Spin Operator Custom Resource Definition and Runtime Class
  • Install and verify containerd shim via Kwasm
  • Deploy a simple Spin App custom resource on your cluster


Please see the following sections in the Prerequisites page and fulfill those prerequisite requirements before continuing:

  • kubectl - the Kubernetes CLI
  • Helm - the package manager for Kubernetes
  • Azure CLI - cross-platform CLI for managing Azure resources

Provisioning the necessary Azure Infrastructure

Before you dive into deploying Spin Operator on Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS), the underlying cloud infrastructure must be provisioned. For the sake of this article, you will provision a simple AKS cluster. (Alternatively, you can setup the AKS cluster following this guide from Microsoft.)

# Login with Azure CLI
az login

# Select the desired Azure Subscription
az account set --subscription <YOUR_SUBSCRIPTION>

# Create an Azure Resource Group
az group create --name rg-spin-operator \
    --location germanywestcentral

# Create an AKS cluster
az aks create --name aks-spin-operator \
    --resource-group rg-spin-operator \
    --location germanywestcentral \
    --node-count 1 \
    --tier free \

Once the AKS cluster has been provisioned, use the aks get-credentials command to download credentials for kubectl:

# Download credentials for kubectl
az aks get-credentials --name aks-spin-operator \
    --resource-group rg-spin-operator

For verification, you can use kubectl to browse common resources inside of the AKS cluster:

# Browse namespaces in the AKS cluster
kubectl get namespaces

NAME              STATUS   AGE
default           Active   3m
kube-node-lease   Active   3m
kube-public       Active   3m
kube-system       Active   3m

Deploying the Spin Operator

First, the Custom Resource Definition (CRD) and the Runtime Class for wasmtime-spin-v2 must be installed.

# Install the CRDs
kubectl apply -f

# Install the Runtime Class
kubectl apply -f

The following installs cert-manager which is required to automatically provision and manage TLS certificates (used by the admission webhook system of Spin Operator)

# Install cert-manager CRDs
kubectl apply -f

# Add and update Jetstack repository
helm repo add jetstack
helm repo update

# Install the cert-manager Helm chart
helm install cert-manager jetstack/cert-manager \
  --namespace cert-manager \
  --create-namespace \
  --version v1.14.3

The Spin Operator chart also has a dependency on Kwasm, which you use to install containerd-wasm-shim on the Kubernetes node(s):

# Add Helm repository if not already done
helm repo add kwasm
helm repo update

# Install KWasm operator
helm install \
  kwasm-operator kwasm/kwasm-operator \
  --namespace kwasm \
  --create-namespace \

# Provision Nodes
kubectl annotate node --all

To verify containerd-wasm-shim installation, you can inspect the logs from the Kwasm Operator:

# Inspect logs from the Kwasm Operator
kubectl logs -n kwasm -l

{"level":"info","node":"aks-nodepool1-31687461-vmss000000","time":"2024-02-12T11:23:43Z","message":"Trying to Deploy on aks-nodepool1-31687461-vmss000000"}
{"level":"info","time":"2024-02-12T11:23:43Z","message":"Job aks-nodepool1-31687461-vmss000000-provision-kwasm is still Ongoing"}
{"level":"info","time":"2024-02-12T11:24:00Z","message":"Job aks-nodepool1-31687461-vmss000000-provision-kwasm is Completed. Happy WASMing"}

The following installs the chart with the release name spin-operator in the spin-operator namespace:

helm install spin-operator \
  --namespace spin-operator \
  --create-namespace \
  --version 0.1.0 \
  --wait \

Lastly, create the shim executor::

kubectl apply -f

Deploying a Spin App to AKS

To validate the Spin Operator deployment, you will deploy a simple Spin App to the AKS cluster. The following command will install a simple Spin App using the SpinApp CRD you provisioned in the previous section:

# Deploy a sample Spin app
kubectl apply -f

Verifying the Spin App

Configure port forwarding from port 8080 of your local machine to port 80 of the Kubernetes service which points to the Spin App you installed in the previous section:

kubectl port-forward services/simple-spinapp 8080:80
Forwarding from -> 80
Forwarding from [::1]:8080 -> 80

Send a HTTP request to using curl:

# Send an HTTP GET request to the Spin App
curl -iX GET http://localhost:8080/hello
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
transfer-encoding: chunked
date: Mon, 12 Feb 2024 12:23:52 GMT

Hello world from Spin!%

Removing the Azure infrastructure

To delete the Azure infrastructure created as part of this article, use the following command:

# Remove all Azure resources
az group delete --name rg-spin-operator \
    --no-wait \