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Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms

    The following glossary of terms is in the context of deploying, scaling, automating and managing Spin applications in containerized environments.

    Chart

    A Helm chart is a package format used in Kubernetes for deploying applications. It contains all the necessary files, configurations, and dependencies required to deploy and manage an application on a Kubernetes cluster. Helm charts provide a convenient way to define, install, and upgrade complex applications in a consistent and reproducible manner.

    Cluster

    A Kubernetes cluster is a group of nodes (servers) that work together to run containerized applications. It consists of a control plane and worker nodes. The control plane manages and orchestrates the cluster, while the worker nodes host the containers. The control plane includes components like the API server, scheduler, and controller manager. The worker nodes run the containers using container runtime engines like Docker. Kubernetes clusters provide scalability, high availability, and automated management of containerized applications in a distributed environment.

    Container Runtime

    A container runtime is a software that manages the execution of containers. It is responsible for starting, stopping, and managing the lifecycle of containers. Container runtimes interact with the underlying operating system to provide isolation and resource management for containers. They also handle networking, storage, and security aspects of containerization. Popular container runtimes include Docker, containerd, and CRI-O. They enable the deployment and management of containerized applications, allowing developers to package their applications with all the necessary dependencies and run them consistently across different environments.

    Controller

    A Controller is a core component responsible for managing the desired state of a specific resource or set of resources. It continuously monitors the cluster and takes actions to ensure that the actual state matches the desired state. Controllers handle tasks such as creating, updating, and deleting resources, as well as reconciling any discrepancies between the current and desired states. They provide automation and self-healing capabilities, ensuring that the cluster remains in the desired state even in the presence of failures or changes. Controllers play a crucial role in maintaining the stability and reliability of Kubernetes deployments.

    Custom Resource (CR)

    In the context of Kubernetes, a Custom Resource (CR) is an extension mechanism that allows users to define and manage their own API resources. It enables the creation of new resource types that are specific to an application or workload. Custom Resources are defined using Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs) and can be treated and managed like any other Kubernetes resource. They provide a way to extend the Kubernetes API and enable the development of custom controllers to handle the lifecycle and behavior of these resources. Custom Resources allow for greater flexibility and customization in Kubernetes deployments.

    Custom Resource Definition (CRD)

    A Custom Resource Definition (CRD) is an extension mechanism that allows users to define their own custom resources. It enables the creation of new resource types with specific schemas and behaviors. CRDs define the structure and validation rules for custom resources, allowing users to store and manage additional information beyond the built-in Kubernetes resources. Once a CRD is created, instances of the custom resource can be created, updated, and deleted using the Kubernetes API. CRDs provide a way to extend Kubernetes and tailor it to specific application requirements.

    SpinApp CRD

    The SpinApp CRD is a Kubernetes resource that extends the functionality of the Kubernetes API to support Spin applications. It defines a custom resource called “SpinApp” that encapsulates all the necessary information to deploy and manage a Spin application within a Kubernetes cluster. The SpinApp CRD consists of several key fields that define the desired state of a Spin application.

    Here’s an example of a SpinApp custom resource that uses the SpinApp CRD schema:

    apiVersion: core.spinoperator.dev/v1alpha1
    kind: SpinApp
    metadata:
      name: simple-spinapp
    spec:
      image: "ghcr.io/spinkube/containerd-shim-spin/examples/spin-rust-hello:v0.14.1"
      replicas: 1
      executor: "containerd-shim-spin"
    

    SpinApp CRDs are kept separate from Helm. If using Helm, CustomResourceDefinition (CRD) resources must be installed prior to installing the Helm chart.

    You can modify the example above to customize the SpinApp via a YAML file. Here’s an updated YAML file with additional customization options:

    apiVersion: core.spinoperator.dev/v1alpha1
    kind: SpinApp
    metadata:
      name: simple-spinapp
    spec:
      image: 'ghcr.io/spinkube/containerd-shim-spin/examples/spin-rust-hello:v0.14.1'
      replicas: 3
      imagePullSecrets:
        - name: spin-image-secret
      serviceAnnotations:
        key: value
      podAnnotations:
        key: value
      resources:
        limits:
          cpu: '1'
          memory: 512Mi
        requests:
          cpu: '0.5'
          memory: 256Mi
      env:
        - name: ENV_VAR1
          value: value1
        - name: ENV_VAR2
          value: value2
      # Add any other user-defined values here
    

    In this updated example, we have added additional customization options:

    • imagePullSecrets: An optional field that lets you reference a Kubernetes secret that has credentials for you to pull in images from a private registry.
    • serviceAnnotations: An optional field that lets you set specific annotations on the underlying service that is created.
    • podAnnotations: An optional field that lets you set specific annotations on the underlying pods that are created.
    • resources: You can specify resource limits and requests for CPU and memory. Adjust the values according to your application’s resource requirements.
    • env: You can define environment variables for your SpinApp. Add as many environment variables as needed, providing the name and value for each.

    To apply the changes, save the YAML file (e.g. updated-spinapp.yaml) and then apply it to your Kubernetes cluster using the following command:

    kubectl apply -f updated-spinapp.yaml
    

    Helm

    Helm is a package manager for Kubernetes that simplifies the deployment and management of applications. It uses charts, which are pre-configured templates, to define the structure and configuration of an application. Helm allows users to easily install, upgrade, and uninstall applications on a Kubernetes cluster. It also supports versioning, dependency management, and customization of deployments. Helm charts can be shared and reused, making it a convenient tool for managing complex applications in a Kubernetes environment.

    Image

    In the context of Kubernetes, an image refers to a packaged and executable software artifact that contains all the necessary dependencies and configurations to run a specific application or service. It is typically built from a Dockerfile and stored in a container registry. Images are used as the basis for creating containers, which are lightweight and isolated runtime environments. Kubernetes pulls the required images from the registry and deploys them onto the cluster’s worker nodes. Images play a crucial role in ensuring consistent and reproducible deployments of applications in Kubernetes.

    Kubernetes

    Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration platform that automates the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. It provides a framework for running and coordinating containers across a cluster of nodes. Kubernetes abstracts the underlying infrastructure and provides features like load balancing, service discovery, and self-healing capabilities. It enables organizations to efficiently manage and scale their applications, ensuring high availability and resilience.

    Open Container Initiative (OCI)

    The Open Container Initiative (OCI) is an open governance structure and project that aims to create industry standards for container formats and runtime. It was formed to ensure compatibility and interoperability between different container technologies. OCI defines specifications for container images and runtime, which are used by container runtimes like Docker and containerd. These specifications provide a common framework for packaging and running containers, allowing users to build and distribute container images that can be executed on any OCI-compliant runtime. OCI plays a crucial role in promoting portability and standardization in the container ecosystem.

    Pod

    A Pod is the smallest and most basic unit of deployment. It represents a single instance of a running process in a cluster. A Pod can contain one or more containers that are tightly coupled and share the same resources, such as network and storage. Containers within a Pod are scheduled and deployed together on the same node. Pods are ephemeral and can be created, deleted, or replaced dynamically. They provide a way to encapsulate and manage the lifecycle of containerized applications in Kubernetes.

    Role Based Access Control (RBAC)

    Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) is a security mechanism in Kubernetes that provides fine-grained control over access to cluster resources. RBAC allows administrators to define roles and permissions for users or groups, granting or restricting access to specific operations and resources within the cluster. RBAC ensures that only authorized users can perform certain actions, helping to enforce security policies and prevent unauthorized access to sensitive resources. It enhances the overall security and governance of Kubernetes clusters.

    Runtime Class

    A Runtime Class is a resource that allows users to specify different container runtimes for running their workloads. It provides a way to define and select the runtime environment in which a Pod should be executed. By using Runtime Classes, users can choose between different container runtimes, based on their specific requirements. This flexibility enables the deployment of workloads with different runtime characteristics, allowing for better resource utilization and performance optimization in Kubernetes clusters.

    Scheduler

    A scheduler is a component responsible for assigning Pods to nodes in the cluster. It takes into account factors like resource availability, node capacity, and any defined scheduling constraints or policies. The scheduler ensures that Pods are placed on suitable nodes to optimize resource utilization and maintain high availability. It considers factors such as affinity, anti-affinity, and resource requirements when making scheduling decisions. The scheduler continuously monitors the cluster and makes adjustments as needed to maintain the desired state of the workload distribution.

    Service

    In Kubernetes, a Service is an abstraction that defines a logical set of Pods that enables clients to interact with a consistent set of Pods, regardless of whether the code is designed for a cloud-native environment or a containerized legacy application.

    Spin

    Spin is a framework designed for building and running event-driven microservice applications using WebAssembly (Wasm) components.

    SpinApp Manifest

    The goal of the SpinApp manifest is twofold:

    • to represent the possible options for configuring a Wasm workload running in Kubernetes
    • to simplify and abstract the internals of how that Wasm workload is executed, while allowing the user to configure it to their needs

    As a result, the simplest SpinApp manifest only requires the registry reference to create a deployment, pod, and service with the right Wasm executor.

    However, the SpinApp manifest currently supports configuring options such as:

    • image pull secrets to fetch applications from private registries
    • liveness and readiness probes
    • resource limits (and requests*)
    • Spin variables
    • volume mounts
    • autoscaling

    Spin App Executor (CRD)

    The SpinAppExecutor CRD is a Custom Resource Definition utilized by Spin Operator to determine which executor type should be used in running a SpinApp.

    Spin Operator

    Spin Operator is a Kubernetes operator in charge of handling the lifecycle of Spin applications based on their SpinApp resources.